|Name of the country/area||Philippines|
|Formal name of the country/area||Republic of the Philippines|
|Country/area information||The World Factbook (CIA)|
Indigenous signs for "Philippines"
Sign of country name "Philippines" (Data offered by Deaf informants in Philippines; movie made by Japan Institute for Sign Language Studies)
Illustrations in the literature
"Philippines" (In: Japanese Federation of the Deaf ed. Supervisor: Hedberg, Tomas. 2003. Country name-signs. Helsinki, Finland: World Federation of the Deaf. 19.)
Related sign languages:
Population of Deaf/deaf people
- 100,000 deaf persons in Philippines (Van Cleve 1986) (Ethnologue web edition).
- The National Government’s official number of Deaf people : 121,000. Philippine Federation of the Deaf’s official or approximate number of Sign Language Users: 975. (WFD. 2008. Global Survey Report. : See Bibliography below.)
Legal status of sign languages
- Status of the National Sign Language(s) from WFD. 2008. Global Survey Report. (See Bibliography below).
1. The government recognises the country's sign language(s) in : the Policy.
2. The year when the country’s government formally recognises the country’s sign language(s): Article 5, Section 1.4.1 of the Policies and Guidelines in Special Education states that “Filipino Sign Language shall be used in the education of the hearing impaired.” (SPED Division, 1986).
3. Deaf Association/Deaf Group does not lobby the government for the recognition of the country’s sign language(s), because there are no Deaf Leaders with expertise in lobbying. The country had a political crisis that hastened the ratification of many bills.
Organizations and associations of the Deaf/deaf
Institutes, associations and universities for sign language studies
Education for the Deaf
Idea (International Deaf education association) Official Website
- Access to Education from WFD. 2008. Global Survey Report. (See Bibliography below).
1.The government recognizes that Deaf children and Deaf students have the right to receive an education.
2.Legislation or policies on Deaf Education:
- The Department of Education has two basic documents that govern the practice of Deaf education in the country: the first document is Policies and Guidelines for Special Education (SPED Division, 1997) which anchors Philippine Deaf education on the philosophy of Total Communication and states that the medium of instruction should be Filipino Sign Language. The second document is the Handbook of Special Education (SPED Division, 1997) which recommends the use of Total Communication.
3.The government provides those educational settings for Deaf children and Deaf students:
- Early intervention (Up to 5 years old)
- Kindergarten (Between 3/4 years old to 5/6 years old)
- Primary (From 5/6 years old to 12/13 years old)
- Secondary (From 12/13 years old to 17/18 years old)
- Vocational Education/Training
4.The government provides bilingual education using the country’s sign language(s) for Deaf children and Deaf students in those educational settings:
5.Total number of schools specifically for Deaf children and Deaf students in the country, and the educational approach for communicating with Deaf children and students at the Deaf School:
- 48 Private Schools, 152 Public Schools
- Oral Method
- Oral and Sign Language (Total Communication)
- Other (sign language)
6.Deaf people’s access to a University education and sign language interpreting services at University:
- 3 Colleges provide access to studies for Deaf people.
- No sign language interpreting service.
Sign language interpretation
- There is an association of sign language interpreters in this country. from WASLI Activities Report 2007-2011 (See Bibliography below).
- Status of Sign Language Interpreting Services from WFD. 2008. Global Survey Report. (See Bibliography below).
1.The number of sign language interpreters in the country:
- 75 Interpreters
2. Sign language interpreting qualifications.
3.The way Deaf people access sign language interpreters:
- Through the Deaf Association or Deaf Schools. As well Churches, Deaf Schools and academic institutions provide interpreting services.
4.The provider of the sign language interpreting services:
- Private Sector
5.The area of life sign language interpreting services are available:
- Court Services
- Educational Services
- others: Church Services and Educational Workshops.
6.The payment for interpreting services, and those who are responsible for paying:
- Sign language interpreters receive payment for interpreting services
- National Association of the Deaf/Deaf Group pays
- Deaf people pay
- Others: Private organisations, Individuals
7.The average hourly rate of payment for sign language interpreters:
- 350 PHP per hour (5.90€ on 31st January 2008)
8.Sign language interpreters sometimes provide voluntary service for sign language interpreting assignments.
9.National Association of Sign Language Interpreters:
- Independent from the National Association of the Deaf.
10.National Code of Ethics for sign language interpreters:
- There is.
11.Legislation or policy in the country which states that the government has a responsibility for the provision of sign language :
- Magna Carta for Disabled Persons
- Data on sign language interpretation in this country collected in 2006 by a similar questionnaire research by WASLI are in the WASLI Newsletter 2007 issue six (See Bibliography below).
1. The sign language in the country :
2. Spoken languages:
Deaf communities and cultures
Religious activities by the Deaf
Famous Deaf persons and hearing persons concerned with sign languages
Sign language dictionaries
MacFadden, Jane. 1977. Sign as you speak. Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines: Southeast Asian Institute for the Deaf.
WASLI (World Association of Sign Language Interpreters). 2011. WASLI Activities Report 2007-2011. Kampala, UGANDA.
Hurlbut, Hope M. 2008. Philippine Signed Languages Survey: A Rapid Appraisal.
World Federation of the Deaf and Swedish National Association of the Deaf. 2008. Global Survey Report. WFD Regional Secretariat for Asia and the Pacific (WFD RSA/P). Global Education Pre-Planning Project on the Human Rights of Deaf People. World Federation of the Deaf. Finland.
De Guzman, Maria Tanya L. 2007. Mental Health Services in the Philippines: A Deaf Perspective In : Goodstein, Harvey ed. The Deaf Way II Reader : Perspectives from the Second International Conference on Deaf Culture. Washington,DC: Gallaudet University Press. 166-171.
Philippine Federation of the Deaf. 2007. Status Report on the use of sign language in the Philippines. PFD(Philippine Federation of the Deaf) unpublished report.
WASLI(World Association of Sign Language Interpreters). 2007. WASLI Newsletter 2007 Issue 6 Kampala, Uganda.
Abat, Rafaelito M. and Liza B. Martinez. 2006. The history of sign language in the Philippines : piecing together the puzzle.9th Philippine Linguistics Congress (25-27January 2006). Organized by the Department of Linguistics, University of the Philippines.
Philippine Federation of the Deaf. 2005. A compilation of signs from regions of the Philippines. Part 1. Quezon City: LFS Printing Services, Inc.
Benitez-dela Torre, Theresa Christine, James DeCaro and Bill Clymer. 2005. Higher education for Deaf students in the Philippines today: The role of De LaSalle-College of Saint Benilde, the Deaf community, and PEN-International. In: Sign Language Communication Studies (Japan Institute for Sign Language Studies, Japanese Federation of the Deaf) 56(2005.06) :22-32.(translated by Japanese Federation of the Deaf, in Japanese)
Mori, Soya. 2005. The dawn of the Philippine Deaf community : The early years of deaf education for the Deaf in the Philippines. In: Sign Language Communication Studies (Japan Institute for Sign Language Studies, Japanese Federation of the Deaf) 56(2005.06) :12-21.
Martinez, Liza B. PhD. 2005. Filipino sign Language: Understanding the past and looking to the future. In: Sign Language Communication Studies (Japan Institute for Sign Language Studies, Japanese Federation of the Deaf) 56(2005.06) :2-11.
Osugi, Yutaka. 2005. About this issue(Foreword): The movements of Deaf people and their community in Philippine. In: Sign Language Communication Studies (Japan Institute for Sign Language Studies, Japanese Federation of the Deaf) 56(2005.06) :1.
Philippine Deaf Resource Center and Philippine Federation of the Deaf. 2004. An Introduction to Filipino Sign Language. Quezon City: Studio Graphics.
Osugi, Yutaka. 2004. The ongoing project on "Practical dictionaries of Asian-Pacific sign languages". In: Sign Language Communication Studies. (Japan Institute for Sign Language Studies, Japanese Federation of the Deaf) 53(2004.09):12-20. [Including information of Asia (general), Cambodia, Hong Kong, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam ]
Nakayama, Sinichiro. 2004. Make a Comparison of Word Order between Sign Language and Language for writing : From study about sign language used in Asia and Africa. In: Sign Language Communication Studies (Japan Institute for Sign Language Studies, Japanese Federation of the Deaf) 52(2004.06):22-26. [Including information of [ Ghana, Zambia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Thailand ]
Project for Publication of "Introduction to Filipino Sign Language- Embassy of Japan in the Philippines News Archive 2003.
Kobayashi, Masayuki． 1999. Deaf in Asia(3) : The Philippines. In: Sign Language Communication Studies (Japan Institute for Sign Language Studies, Japanese Federation of the Deaf) 31(1999.03) :81-84.
Martinez, Liza.B. 1995. Turn-taking and eye gaze in sign conversations between Deaf Filipinos. In: Ceil Lucas ed., Sociolinguistics in deaf communities. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press. :272-306.
Martinez, Liza.B. 1995. Filipino Sign Language: may kaugnauyan at kabuluhan ba sa Deaf education? Tan Chi King Professorial Chair Lecture. De La Salle University.
Martinez, Liza.B. 1994. A linguistic study of some aspects of Pilipino Sign Language in Manila and Cebu. Unpublished manuscript. Department of Linguistics and Interpreting. Gallaudet University. Washington D.C.
Martinez, Liza B. 1993. Eye-gaze as an element in Filipino Sign Language discourse. In: Winston, Elisabeth A. ed. Communication forum volume 2. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University, School of Communication. 99-112.
Saulo, Ligaya Gamez. (1990？). Say it with signs: a sign language handbook for Filipinos. Philippine Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf.
Shaneyfelt, Wayne. 1987. Philippine Sign Language. In：J.Van Cleve ed. Gallaudet Encyclopedia of Deafness. New York: MacGraw-Hill. 97.
Gorton, L. 1984. A gift of love and language. Deaf education and Peace Corps in the Philippines. In : Salaysayan.(December 1984): 18-20.
1976. People of the Silent World. Philippine Association of the Deaf, Inc. Makati: Philippine.
Berger, Kenneth W. 1969. A history of the education of the deaf in the Philippines. In : American Annals of the Deaf. 114: 79-94.
Wright, John Dutton. 1926. Schools for the Deaf in the Orient. In : Volta Review.28: 49-52. [Subsequent articles on pp. 348-355; 415-417; 593-595; 769-770; report on South Asian schools.(includs Philippines, Japan, Burma(Myanmar), India and Ceylon(Sri Lanka))
History of sign language research
Sign Languages in Asia: Philippines (Data offered by Deaf informants in Philippines; movies made by Japan Institute for Sign Language Studies)
|Asia (general)||Asia (general)|
|East Asia||China | Japan | Mongolia | North Korea | South Korea|
|Southeast Asia||Brunei | Cambodia | East Timor | Indonesia | Laos | Malaysia | Myanmar | Philippines | Singapore | Thailand | Vietnam|
|South Asia||Bangladesh | Bhutan | India | Maldives | Nepal | Pakistan | Sri Lanka|
|Areas and others||Hong Kong | Macau | Taiwan|